Nigeria

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Ethnic conflicts in Nigeria

Nigeria is probably one of the most complicated countries in the world, with 120 different languages spoken in the country. The main groups are the Yorubas, Hausar-Fulani and the Igbos, none of whom constitute a majority of the population. On top of the ethnic and linguistic divide there is also the religious divide, mainly between Muslims (who dominate in the North) and Christians (who dominate in the South). Over the past few years thousands of people have been killed in ethnic clashes.

The North is the home of the Boko Haram - The group behind the violence in northern Nigeria is known by several different names, including al-Sunnah wal Jamma, or Followers of Muhammad's Teachings in Arabic, and Boko Haram, which means "Western education is forbidden" in the local Hausa dialect. The group was founded in 2002 in Maiduguri, the capital of Borno state, allegedly by Mohammed Yusuf, a religious teacher. In 2004, it moved to Kanamma in Yobe state, close to the border with Niger, where it set up a base dubbed "Afghanistan", from which it attacked nearby police outposts. Boko Haram, which includes members who come from neighbouring Chad, is said to not only oppose Western education, but Western culture as well. Mohammed Yusuf was killed in the aftermath of clashes between Boko Haram and Nigerian police in August 2009.

Bauchi is one of 12 states in northern Nigeria where sharia, or Islamic law, is practiced. Sectarian clashes between Muslims and Christians in Bauchi state killed at least 700 people in 2010, when a political feud over a local election degenerated into bloody confrontation between Muslims and Christians.

Source : Al Jazeera and agencies (2011)


September 26, 2012 - Boko Haram attacks – timeline - Nigeria struggles to stem Islamist sect responsible for deadly wave of bombings across Africa's most populous country Guardian News Item

UN

May 23, 2014 - Boko Haram sanctions

The UN Security Council has approved sanctions against the Nigerian militant group Boko Haram, five weeks after it kidnapped more than 200 schoolgirls. It will now be added to a list of al-Qaeda-linked organisations subject to an arms embargo and asset freeze. US envoy Samantha Power said it was an "important step" in support of efforts to "defeat Boko Haram and hold its murderous leadership accountable". The List established and maintained by the Al-Qaida Sanctions Committee with respect to individuals, groups, undertakings and other entities associated with Al-Qaida

UN recent actions

ECOWAS

November 01, 1998 – The Economic Community of West Africa States (ECOWAS) declared a moratorium on the import, export and manufacture of light weapons. The Moratorium applies to pistols, rifles, shotguns, sub-machine guns, carbines, machine guns, anti-tank missiles, mortars and howitzers up to 85mm and ammunition and spare parts for the above. A Code of Conduct on its implementation was agreed on 24 March 1999.

Exceptions to the Moratorium may be granted where the goods are to meet legitimate security needs.

There are three exceptions to the Moratorium as follows:

The ECOWAS Moratorium applies to all states in ECOWAS:

US

OFAC

November 13, 2013 - Terrorist Designations of Boko Haram and Ansaru

The Department of State has announced the designation of Boko Haram and Ansaru as Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTO) under Section 219 of the Immigration and Nationality Act, as amended, and as Specially Designated Global Terrorists under section 1(b) of Executive Order 13224. Boko Haram is a Nigeria-based militant group with links to al-Qa’ida in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) that is responsible for thousands of deaths in northeast and central Nigeria over the last several years including targeted killings of civilians. Also operating in Nigeria, Ansaru is a Boko Haram splinter faction that earlier in 2013 kidnapped and executed seven international construction workers.

These designations are an important and appropriate step, but only one tool in what must be a comprehensive approach by the Nigerian government to counter these groups through a combination of law enforcement, political, and development efforts, as well as military engagement, to help root out violent extremism while also addressing the legitimate concerns of the people of northern Nigeria. All of our assistance to Nigeria stresses the importance of protecting civilians and ensuring that human rights are respected. That assistance and these designations demonstrate U.S. support for the Nigerian people’s fight against Boko Haram and Ansaru.

These designations will assist U.S. and other law enforcement partners in efforts to investigate and prosecute terrorist suspects associated with Boko Haram and Ansaru.

Boko Haram has been conducting an ongoing and brutal campaign against Nigerian military, government, and civilian targets. Among its most lethal attacks, Boko Haram carried out indiscriminate attacks in Benisheikh, Nigeria in September 2013 that killed more than 160 innocent civilians, including women and children. Boko Haram has also conducted attacks against international targets, including a suicide bombing of the United Nations building in Abuja on August 26, 2011, that killed 21 people and injured dozens more, many of them aid workers supporting development projects across Nigeria.

Ansaru’s attacks have focused on Nigerian military and Western targets. In November 2012, Ansaru raided a police station in Abuja, killing Nigerian police officers and freeing detained terrorists from prison. Also in January 2013, Ansaru attacked Nigerian security services when its members ambushed a convoy of Nigerian peacekeepers. Ansaru has also conducted several kidnappings of foreigners living or working in Nigeria.

The consequences of the these FTO and E.O. 13224 designations include a prohibition against knowingly providing, or attempting or conspiring to provide, material support or resources to, or engaging in transactions with, Boko Haram and Ansaru, and the freezing of all property and interests in property of the organizations that are in the United States, or come within the United States or the control of U.S. persons. The Department of State took these actions in consultation with the Departments of Justice and Treasury.

Department of State Press Release & OFAC Recent Updates


June 21, 2012 - Terrorist Designations of Boko Haram Commander Abubakar Shekau, Khalid al-Barnawi and Abubakar Adam Kambar

The Department of State designated Abubakar Shekau, Abubakar Adam Kambar, and Khalid al-Barnawi as Specially Designated Global Terrorists under section 1(b) of Executive Order 13224. Shekau is the most visible leader of the Nigeria-based militant group Jama’atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda’awati Wal-Jihad, commonly referred to as Boko Haram. Khalid al-Barnawi and Abubakar Adam Kambar have ties to Boko Haram and have close links to al-Qa’ida in the Islamic Maghreb, a designated Foreign Terrorist Organization.

Under Shekau’s leadership, Boko Haram has carried out numerous attacks in northern Nigeria, its primary area of operation. In the last 18 months, Boko Haram or associated militants have killed more than 1,000 people. Boko Haram is credited with the August 26, 2011 attack on the United Nations building in Abuja that killed at least 23 people and wounded scores more. Boko Haram also claimed responsibility for the December 25, 2011 attack on the Saint Theresa Catholic Church in Madalla, Nigeria, that killed at least 35 and wounded dozens more. Boko Haram’s deadliest violence occurred on January 20, 2012 in Kano, Nigeria, with a series of attacks that killed more than 180 people. Boko Haram's victims have been overwhelmingly civilian.

The designation under E.O. 13224 blocks all of Shekau’s, Kambar’s and al-Barnawi’s property interests subject to U.S. jurisdiction and prohibits U.S. persons from engaging in transactions with or for the benefit of these individuals. These designations demonstrate the United States’ resolve in diminishing the capacity of Boko Haram to execute violent attacks. The Department of State took these actions in consultation with the Departments of Justice and Treasury.

US Department of State Press Release & OFAC Designation


March 27, 2012 - Anti-Terrorism Designations​

Both Iranian companies are hit with sanctions for helping Iranian special forces export arms. The Treasury Department said Yas Air and Quds officials Esmail Ghani, Sayyid Ali Akbar Tabatabaei and Hosein Aghajani shipped weapons to the Mideast and Africa as Iran sought to "evade international sanctions and export violence." The airline moved assault rifles and mortar shells to Syria under cover of humanitarian aid. The department cited Behineh Trading's involvement in a shipment of grenades, rockets and mortars seized in Nigeria in 2010. Nigerian shipping agent Ali Abbas Usman Jega was described as complicit.

The following entities have been added to OFAC's SDN list:

The following individuals have been added to OFAC's SDN list:

OFAC Resource Center

FATF Warning List

February 22, 2013 - The FATF is not yet satisfied that Nigeria has made sufficient progress on their action plan agreed upon with the FATF. The most significant action plan items and/or the majority of the action plan items have not been addressed. If Nigeria does not take sufficient action to implement significant components of their action plan by June 2013, then the FATF will identify Nigeria as being out of compliance with their agreed action plans and will take the additional step of calling upon its members to consider the risks arising from the deficiencies associated with Nigeria.


October 19, 2012 - The Financial Action Task Force (FATF) is the global standard setting body for anti-money laundering and combating the financing of terrorism (AML/CFT). In order to protect the international financial system from ML/FT risks and to encourage greater compliance with the AML/CFT standards, the FATF identified jurisdictions that have strategic deficiencies and works with them to address those deficiencies that pose a risk to the international financial system.

As part of its ongoing review of compliance with the AML/CFT standards, the FATF has identified that this jurisdictions (Nigeria) has strategic AML/CFT deficiencies for which it has developed an action plan with the FATF.

NOTE-1: Strategic deficiencies require Enhanced Due Diligence

NOTE-2: FATF members and other jurisdictions should apply counter-measures to protect the international financial system from the on-going and substantial money laundering and terrorist financing (ML/TF) risks emanating from the jurisdictions Iran and North Korea.


The FATF and the FSRBs will continue to work with this jurisdiction and to report on the progress made in addressing the identified deficiencies. The FATF calls on the jurisdiction to complete the implementation of action plans expeditiously and within the proposed time frames. All member states should treat this jurisdiction (Nigeria) with vigilance FATF Public Statement - October 19, 2012


June 22, 2012 - The Financial Action Task Force (FATF) is the global standard setting body for anti-money laundering and combating the financing of terrorism (AML/CFT). In order to protect the international financial system from ML/FT risks and to encourage greater compliance with the AML/CFT standards, the FATF identified jurisdictions that have strategic deficiencies and works with them to address those deficiencies that pose a risk to the international financial system.

As part of its ongoing review of compliance with the AML/CFT standards, the FATF has identified that this jurisdictions (Nigeria) has strategic AML/CFT deficiencies for which it has developed an action plan with the FATF.

NOTE-1: Strategic deficiencies require Enhanced Due Diligence

NOTE-2: FATF members and other jurisdictions should apply counter-measures to protect the international financial system from the on-going and substantial money laundering and terrorist financing (ML/TF) risks emanating from the jurisdictions Iran and North Korea.


The FATF and the FSRBs will continue to work with this jurisdiction and to report on the progress made in addressing the identified deficiencies. The FATF calls on the jurisdiction to complete the implementation of action plans expeditiously and within the proposed time frames. All member states should treat this jurisdiction (Nigeria) with vigilance FATF Public Statement - June 22, 2012


February 16, 2012 - The Financial Action Task Force (FATF) is the global standard setting body for anti-money laundering and combating the financing of terrorism (AML/CFT). In order to protect the international financial system from ML/FT risks and to encourage greater compliance with the AML/CFT standards, the FATF identified jurisdictions that have strategic deficiencies and works with them to address those deficiencies that pose a risk to the international financial system.

As part of its ongoing review of compliance with the AML/CFT standards, the FATF has identified that this jurisdictions (Nigeria) has strategic AML/CFT deficiencies for which it has developed an action plan with the FATF.

NOTE-1: Strategic deficiencies require Enhanced Due Diligence

NOTE-2: FATF members and other jurisdictions should apply counter-measures to protect the international financial system from the on-going and substantial money laundering and terrorist financing (ML/TF) risks emanating from the jurisdictions Iran and North Korea.


The FATF and the FSRBs will continue to work with this jurisdiction and to report on the progress made in addressing the identified deficiencies. The FATF calls on the jurisdiction to complete the implementation of action plans expeditiously and within the proposed time frames. All member states should treat this jurisdiction (Nigeria) with vigilance FATF Public Statement - February 16, 2012


28 October 2011 - The Financial Action Task Force (FATF) is the global standard setting body for anti-money laundering and combating the financing of terrorism (AML/CFT). In order to protect the international financial system from ML/FT risks and to encourage greater compliance with the AML/CFT standards, the FATF identified jurisdictions that have strategic deficiencies and works with them to address those deficiencies that pose a risk to the international financial system.

As part of its ongoing review of compliance with the AML/CFT standards, the FATF has identified that this jurisdictions (Nigeria) has strategic (downgraded) AML/CFT deficiencies for which it has developed an action plan with the FATF.

NOTE-1: Strategic deficiencies require Enhanced Due Diligence

NOTE-2: FATF members and other jurisdictions should apply counter-measures to protect the international financial system from the on-going and substantial money laundering and terrorist financing (ML/TF) risks emanating from the jurisdictions Iran and North Korea.


The FATF and the FSRBs will continue to work with this jurisdiction and to report on the progress made in addressing the identified deficiencies. The FATF calls on the jurisdiction to complete the implementation of action plans expeditiously and within the proposed time frames. All member states should treat this jurisdiction (Nigeria) with vigilance FATF Public Statement - October 28, 2011

US FinCen - AML/CFT Deficiencies Warning List

November 15, 2011 - FinCen adopted the Financial Action Task Force Public Statement on Anti-Money Laundering and Counter-Terrorist Financing Risks and FinCen provided guidance on the subject. More detailed information FIN-2011-A014 and FIN-2011-A015

Singapore MAS - AML/CFT Deficiencies Warning List

On 28 Oct 2011, the Financial Action Task Force (FATF), of which Singapore is a member, issued an updated statement that highlighted the strategic deficiencies in the anti-money laundering/combating the financing of terrorism (AML/CFT) regimes of Nigeria and Sao Tome & Principe, in addition to the previously announced regimes of Bolivia, Cuba, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK), Ethiopia, Iran, Kenya, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Syria and Turkey. The text of the FATF statement can be found at: FATF Statement

Financial institutions are advised to accord due consideration to the above FATF statement and take the appropriate action(s) as recommended by the FATF with respect to the named jurisdictions.

Separately, FATF has issued an updated statement on its on-going process to improve global AML/CFT compliance. This statement provides information on a list of jurisdictions that have committed to action plans to address and strengthen their respective AML/CFT deficiencies. The second FATF statement can be found at: FATF Statement


June 24, 2011 - The Financial Action Task Force (FATF) is the global standard setting body for anti-money laundering and combating the financing of terrorism (AML/CFT). In order to protect the international financial system from ML/FT risks and to encourage greater compliance with the AML/CFT standards, the FATF identified jurisdictions that have strategic deficiencies and works with them to address those deficiencies that pose a risk to the international financial system.

As part of its ongoing review of compliance with the AML/CFT standards, the FATF has identified that this jurisdictions (Nigeria) has AML/CFT deficiencies for which it has developed an action plan with the FATF.

NOTE-1: Strategic deficiencies require Enhanced Due Diligence

NOTE-2: FATF members and other jurisdictions should apply counter-measures to protect the international financial system from the on-going and substantial money laundering and terrorist financing (ML/TF) risks emanating from the jurisdictions Iran and North Korea.


The FATF and the FSRBs will continue to work with this jurisdiction and to report on the progress made in addressing the identified deficiencies. The FATF calls on the jurisdiction to complete the implementation of action plans expeditiously and within the proposed time frames. All member states should treat this jurisdiction (Nigeria) with vigilance FATF Public Statement - June 24, 2011


US FinCen - AML/CFT Deficiencies Warning List

July 13, 2011 - FinCen adopted the Financial Action Task Force Public Statement on Anti-Money Laundering and Counter-Terrorist Financing Risks and FinCen provided guidance on the subject. More detailed information FIN-2011-A011 and FIN-2011-A012

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