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December 06, 2011 - Security Council Adopts Resolution UNSC 2023/2011 Reinforcing Sanctions Regime against Eritrea to Halt All Activities Destabilizing Region.
Resolution 2023 (2011) Adopted by the Security Council at its 6674th meeting, on 5 December 2011
Concerned at the potential use of the Eritrean mining sector as a financial source to destabilize the Horn of Africa region, the Security Council today reinforced the sanctions regime on that country to prevent mining funds from contributing to its continued violations of those measures.
Adopting resolution 2023 (2011), under Chapter VII of the Charter, by a vote of 13 in favour to none against, with 2 abstentions (China, Russian Federation), the Council demanded that Eritrea cease all direct or indirect efforts to destabilize States, and decided that States shall “undertake appropriate measures to promote the exercise of vigilance” in business dealings with Eritrea’s mining sector. To that end, it requested its Sanctions Committee concerning Somalia and Eritrea to draft, with the assistance of the Somalia/Eritrea Monitoring Group, due diligence guidelines for States’ optional use.
The Council also condemned Eritrea’s use of the “diaspora tax” on the Eritrean diaspora to destabilize the Horn of Africa region and to violate the sanctions regime, including by procuring arms and related materiel for transfer to armed opposition groups, and decided that Eritrea shall cease those practices. It further decided that Eritrea shall stop using extortion, threats of violence, fraud and other illicit means to collect taxes outside of Eritrea from its nationals or other individuals of Eritrean descent.
By further terms of the text, the Council expressed its intention to apply targeted sanctions against individuals and entities that meet the listing criteria set out in paragraph 15 of resolution 1907 (2009) and paragraph 1 of resolution 2002 (2011). [Together, those resolutions imposed an arms embargo, as well as a travel ban and assets freeze on Eritrea’s political and military leaders, and expanded the sanctions regime to include individuals and entities recruiting or using child soldiers in Somalia’s armed conflicts, and targeting civilians or committing attacks against schools and hospitals.]
By today’s text, the Council also decided to expand the mandate of the Monitoring Group to monitor and report on the provisions of the new text, as well as its demand that Eritrea make available information regarding the Djiboutian combatants missing in action since 10 to 12 June 2008.
It called on all States to report within 120 days on steps taken to implement the current resolution and on the Secretary-General to report within 180 days on Eritrea’s compliance under the sanctions regime. It affirmed that it would keep Eritrea’s actions under continuous review and that it was prepared to strengthen, modify or lift those sanctions based on the country’s compliance.
Security Council Imposes Sanctions on Eritrea over its role in Somalia and it’s refusal to withdraw troops from concerning the conflict with Djibouti.
UN Resolution 1907 (2009) Stipulates Arms Embargo, Travel Restrictions, Asset Freezes UN Arms Sanctions
- embargo on arms and related material
- ban on exports of equipment for internal repression
- ban on provision of certain services
- restrictions on admission
- freezing of funds and economic resources of certain persons who constitute a threat to the peace and national reconciliation
- travel ban
In December 2009 the UN imposed an embargo on arms and associated materiel to and from Eritrea, the Council called upon all States to inspect all cargo to and from Somalia and Eritrea, and upon discovery of prohibited items, to seize and dispose of them. It decided that travel restrictions and an asset freeze should apply to individuals, including but not limited to, the Eritrean political and military leadership, so designated by the Committee on Somalia Sanctions, as well as to governmental and parastatal actors and entities privately owned by Eritrean nationals living within or outside Eritrean territory, so designated by the same Committee.
More information UN Sanction 1907 (2009)
In order to implement the UN arms embargo on Eritrea of 23 December 2009, the European Union member states adopted Council Decision 2010/127/CFSP on 1 March 2010. EU Arms Sanctions
On 23 December 2009 the United Nations Security Council, concerned about findings that Eritrea had provided support to armed groups undermining peace and reconciliation in Somalia and that it had not withdrawn its forces following clashes with Djibouti in June 2008, adopted UNSCR 1907 (2009) which imposed an arms embargo on Eritrea, in addition to travel restrictions on and a freeze on the assets of the political and military leaders of Eritrea.
On 26 July 2010, the EU adopted Council Regulation (EU) No 667/2010 which implemented the measures in UNSCR 1907 (2009).
To date, no targets have been designated by the relevant UN Sanctions Committee.
Der Bundesrat hat am 3. Februar 2010 Zwangsmassnahmen gegenüber Eritrea beschlossen und eine entsprechende Verordnung erlassen. Mit dieser Verordnung setzt die Schweiz die UNO-Sicherheitsratsresolution 1907 (2009) um.
Die Verordnung sieht die folgenden Zwangsmassnahmen vor:
- Die Lieferung, der Verkauf, die Ausfuhr und die Durchfuhr von Rüstungsgütern aller Art, einschliesslich Waffen und Munition, Militärfahrzeugen und -ausrüstung, paramilitärischer Ausrüstung sowie Zubehör und Ersatzteile dafür, nach Eritrea sind verboten (Art. 1 Abs. 1).
- Die Erbringung von Dienstleistungen aller Art, einschliesslich Finanzdienstleistungen, Vermittlungsdiensten und technischer Beratung, die Gewährung von Finanzmitteln und die Tätigung von Investitionen im Zusammenhang mit der Lieferung, dem Verkauf, der Ausfuhr, der Durchfuhr, der Herstellung oder der Verwendung von Rüstungsgütern nach Absatz 1 sowie mit militärischen Aktivitäten in Eritrea sind verboten (Art. 1 Abs. 2).
- Die Verbote der Absätze 1 und 2 gelten auch gegenüber den im Anhang genannten natürlichen Personen, Unternehmen und Organisationen (Art. 1 Abs. 3).
- Die Beschaffung, die Einfuhr, die Durchfuhr und die Vermittlung von Rüstungsgütern aller Art, einschliesslich Waffen und Munition, Militärfahrzeugen und -ausrüstung, paramilitärischer Ausrüstung sowie Zubehör und Ersatzteilen dafür, sowie die Inanspruchnahme von Dienstleistungen im Zusammenhang mit diesen Gütern, aus Eritrea sind verboten (Art. 2).
Sperrung von Geldern und wirtschaftlichen Ressourcen
- Gelder und wirtschaftliche Ressourcen, die sich im Eigentum oder unter der Kontrolle der natürlichen Personen, Unternehmen und Organisationen nach dem Anhang befinden, sind gesperrt (Art. 3 Abs. 1).
- Es ist verboten, den von der Sperrung betroffenen natürlichen Personen, Unternehmen und Organisationen Gelder zu überweisen oder Gelder und wirtschaftliche Ressourcen sonstwie direkt oder indirekt zur Verfügung zu stellen (Art. 3 Abs. 2).
- Personen und Institutionen, die Gelder halten oder verwalten oder von wirtschaftlichen Ressourcen wissen, von denen anzunehmen ist, dass sie unter die Sperrung fallen, müssen dies dem SECO unverzüglich melden (Art. 7).
Die Einreise in die Schweiz und die Durchreise durch die Schweiz ist den im Anhang der Verordnung aufgeführten natürlichen Personen verboten (Art. 5).
Anmerkung: Der Anhang der Verordnung enthält zurzeit keine Einträge, da das zuständige Sanktionskomitee des UNO-Sicherheitsrats noch keine Namensliste veröffentlicht hat.
On 23 December 2009 the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) adopted resolution 1907, imposing sanctions against Eritrea in response to the ongoing border dispute between Djibouti and Eritrea, as well as Eritrea’s support to armed groups destabilising and undermining peace and reconciliation in Somalia, which the UNSC determined constituted a threat to international peace and security.
On January 23, 1992, the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 733 (1992) which ordered an immediate and complete embargo on all deliveries of weapons and military equipment to Somalia in response to the rapid deterioration of the situation and the heavy loss of human life and widespread material damage resulting from the conflict in that country. From 2001 to 2008, a number of further resolutions were adopted which strengthened and created a number of exceptions to the arms embargo.
Additionally, in 2008, there were clashes along the Eritrea-Djibouti border, and Eritrea was condemned by the international community for initiating hostilities. In January 2009, the UN Security Council adopted resolution 1862 which demanded that Eritrea ensure that no military presence or activity was being pursued in Djibouti, that it acknowledge its border dispute with Djibouti, that it engage actively in dialogue to defuse the tension and in diplomatic efforts leading to a mutually acceptable settlement of the border issue, and that it cooperate fully with the UN Secretary-General's good offices. Eritrea did not comply with resolution 1862.
During 2009, there was increased focus on Eritrea’s destabilizing role in Somalia, and its violation of the embargo.
Consequently, on December 23, 2009, the UN Security Council, acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations, adopted Resolution 1907 determining that Eritrea’s actions undermine peace and reconciliation in Somalia and that the dispute between Djibouti and Eritrea constitutes a threat to international peace and security. Resolution 1907 demands that Eritrea immediately comply with Resolution 1862 and that all states, and in particular Eritrea, cease any support of armed opposition groups in Somalia.
Resolution 1907 (2009) also imposes sanctions against Eritrea and persons designated by a committee of the Security Council. These sanctions are legally binding upon all UN Member States pursuant to Article 25 of the Charter of the United Nations. Therefore Canada must implement them domestically. The Regulations Implementing the United Nations Resolution on Eritrea (the Regulations) made under the legislative authority of the United Nations Act incorporate these sanctions into Canadian domestic law. However, implementation of the travel ban imposed by Resolution 1907 is ensured in Canada under existing provisions of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act. Sanctions
The measures imposed by United Nations Security Council Resolution 1907 (2009) include:
- a prohibition on the sale, supply or transfer of arms and related material to Eritrea and to persons designated by the UN sanctions committee established to oversee the sanctions against Somalia and Eritrea (the 751 Committee);
- a prohibition on the provision to Eritrea and to persons designated by the 751 Committee of technical, training, financial or other assistance related to military activities or to the supply, sale, transfer, manufacture, maintenance or use of arms and related material of all types;
- an assets freeze against persons designated by the 751 Committee; and
- a travel ban against persons designated by the 751 Committee.
May 5, 2011 - The Secretary for Commerce and Economic Development has specified an updated list of relevant persons and relevant entities designated under section 32 of the United Nations Sanctions (Eritrea) Regulation (Cap. 537 sub. leg. AR). The list was published in the Government Gazette (G.N. 2552 of 2011) on 29 April 2011 and is available on the government’s website eGazette Hong Kong and Hong Kong Sanction - May 5, 2011 (UN Based Sanction)
October 18, 2010 - United Nations Sanctions (Eritrea) Regulation Hong Kong Sanction - UN based sanctions.
November 26, 2010 - Monetary Authority of Singapore (Sanctions and Freezing of Assets of Persons_Eritrea) Regulations 2010 Singapore Sanctions - UN based sanctions.
ITAR Based sanctions, see chapter on ITAR for more detailed information